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Web and Network Services

All things web and Rust:

As well as non-web network services.

Posts

Streaming gRPC with Rust by Kevin Hoffman
Lately I’ve been working on a side project that involves aggregating the indexes of media libraries and allowing one library to “lend” a file to another. For example, I might use this system if I want my home tower to “lend” a file to my laptop before I get on a plane. I’ll be committing my work-in-progress on this project to github shortly (just want to get an MVP working first and do some refactoring), but I thought I would take a step back for a moment and share my thoughts on one aspect of this project: gRPC. In particular: gRPC streaming.
Writing a Web API Client in Rust (Part 3) by Owen Nelson
The 3rd of a multi-part series where we build a small REST client for the Marvel Comics Web API using Rust. This time we focus on how to use the hyper and futures crates to make HTTP requests to a Web API, then use serde to parse JSON data from the response.
Conspiracies, Dissemination, and REST APIs by Rob Rowe
Welcome to the third post in a series where I share my experience learning Rust. I’m building out a conspiracy theories API to help me get more familiar with Rust and have a little fun. Since I am new to Rust, I welcome all feedback, especially from developers who have been using Rust for quite some time. Leave a comment below or send your feedback via Twitter. Now it’s time to draw the blackout curtains, put on your foil-lined hat on and start serving up conspiracies from a REST API.
actix – an actor framework for the Rust programming language by Tobias Bieniek
The “actor model” is the main primitive that powers the Erlang programming language and its descendant, Elixir. It describes a programming model that simplifies the development of concurrent and multi-threaded applications or even applications that run distributed on multiple machines.

The complexity of actors is relatively low, and that is because the complexity is usually hidden in the actor frameworks that are used to run these types of primitives in the end. One example of such an actor framework is actix, which we will have a closer look at now.
Actix::From(Rocket) by noyez
I was inspired by Nick’s post to migrate my code from Rocket to Actix. I have also been nagged by recent struggles with the nightly compiler and its compatibility with all the other crates that I use and other the platforms that I use; my code runs on 32⁄64 bit arm and 32⁄64 bit x86. When I started using Rocket around a year ago, the nightly compiler was just as stable as the stable compiler, but things have changed as rust is a growing eco system.

For me, once the differences below were addressed, porting the code was relatively straightforward. The vast majority of my code remained the same.
Writing a Simple Github Webhook Responder With actix-web by Daniel Welch
Creating a simple web service for automating Travis builds across repositories using actix-web and Github webhooks.
hyper v0.12 by Sean McArthur
Today sees the release of hyper v0.12.0, a fast and correct HTTP library for the Rust language.

This release adds support for several new features, while taking the opportunity to fix some annoyances, and improve the extreme speeds!
HTTP Crate with URL Support & a Simple HTTP Client by Pyfisch
While the http crate generally has a great API I have been unsatisfied how it handles URLs. To create a HTTP request a full URL is needed with a scheme (http/https), authority (example.org) and a path (/search?q=rust) but http does enforce this and allows you to only state the path. This means both clients and servers are either unable to determine protocol and and authority information or have to do this manually.
Mix Rust Code (WebAssembly) with Vue Component by drsensor
In this tutorials, we will try mixing Rust code with Javascript by compiling Rust code as .wasm then use it in Vue Component.
Snowhash in Rust with WASM by Josh Leeb-du Toit
A little while ago I came across this Snowflake generator. It’s a project by Raph Levein that takes a hash string and uses it to procedurally generate a unique snowflake. He explains that the original motivation was as a cryptographically secure visual hash, so that people would reliably be able to tell by visual inspection whether two hashes were identical. I thought that was a pretty cool idea.
Wicked Fast Web Servers in Rust by Pete Mertz
I write code for the web every day, and as such, I naturally wanted to find a web server that I could write some beautiful code in Rust with. There are a few options out there, Actix, Rocket, but none of them are quite as simple and succinct as KoaJS for node. As such, I wanted to write something as simple as Koa and as performant as a Rust framework, and I did. With that, I give you Thruster, an elegant, performant, web server written in Rust.
Writing a Web API Client in Rust (Part 2) by Owen Nelson
The 2nd of a multi-part series where we build a small REST client for the Marvel Comics Web API using Rust. This time we focus on how to use the hyper and futures crates to make HTTP requests to a Web API, then use serde to parse JSON data from the response.
Migrating to Actix Web from Rocket for Stability by Nick Babcock
I previously wrote an article back in November 2017: Replacing Elasticsearch with Rust and SQLite. In it, I needed to create a few HTTP endpoints that ingested JSON, perform a database lookup, and return JSON. Very simple. No query / path parameters, authentication, authorization, H2, or TLS. I didn’t understand how stability was such an important feature. I was familiar with needing new versions of the nightly compiler to stay current with clippy and rustfmt, but it was a blindspot when it came to dependencies.
Creating a Rusty Rocket fuelled with Diesel by Dan Newton
Here I go with my first post that fully focuses on Rust. After spending a few months doing a bit here and there I decided to just dive right in as I was going through the Rust book at too slow a pace to keep myself interested. So, in this post I decided to write about setting up a simple REST API which is something that I have done in Java plenty of times but with Rust it is a different story.
A Small Rust API with Actix by Steve Zeidner
I had the need for a very small API for this website. So small, in fact, that only one endpoint was required. I've been doing a lot of development in Rust lately, so naturally Rust seemed like a good candidate to build this API in. I also wanted to try out a newer Rust web framework called Actix web. It claims to be a "small, pragmatic, and extremely fast rust web framework", which sounded perfect for what I needed.
Making microservices in Rust by Dylan Maccora
This is a small idea that I have been wanting to put together for quite some time now and finally have managed to get the time and most importantly experience in Rust to finally try something a little more than just small projects. One area that I think Rust is really making a decent headway in in the web domain, which I am assuming is likely due to its origin from Firefox. So I wanted to see if I could put together a really basic CRUD micro-service doing the ever so original TODO functionality.
Can Rust speed up your Azure Functions? by Claus
Using Rust on Microsoft Azure Functions with web assembly
WASM+Rust Tutorial by Robert Masen
A project used for a meetup talk about getting started with rust & wasm
Using LLVM from Rust, to generate WebAssembly by Jay Phelps
Hopefully this post helps jumpstart those who want to use LLVM from Rust. I also include how one could use this to generate WebAssembly, but the first part of this post is target platform agnostic.
How does dynamic dispatch work in WebAssembly? by Nick Fitzgerald
C, C++, and Rust all have some capability for dynamic dispatch: function pointers, virtual methods, and trait objects. On native targets like x86, all these forms compile down into a jump to a dynamic address. What do these forms compile down into when targeting WebAssembly?
Hello wasm-pack! by Ashley Williams
wasm-pack is a tool for assembling and packaging Rust crates that target WebAssembly. These packages can be published to the npm Registry and used alongside other packages. This means you can use them side-by-side with JS and other packages, and in many kind of applications, be it a Node.js server side app, a client-side application bundled by Webpack, or any other sort of application that uses npm dependencies. You can find wasm-pack on crates.io and GitHub.
How To Optimize JavaScript Code with Rust Part 1 by Raji Ayinla
In the first part of this Rust series, we’re going to walk through setting up Rust, writing Rust code, exporting the code, and using the code in our Node environment. By the end of this article, you’ll see how painless marrying Rust with JavaScript is.
Writing An NES Emulator with Rust and WebAssembly by bokuweb
I wrote the NES emulator with Rust and WebAssembly to learn Rust. It’s not perfect and have some audio bugs, but it’s good enough to play Super Mario bros.
JavaScript Interop with WebAssembly by Kevin Hoffman
In my last post I provided an introduction to WebAssembly — what is it, why do we care, and what does it look like? In this post, I’d like to explore a little bit of the inner workings of how we can communicate between Rust (wasm) and JavaScript. As I mentioned in the last post, WebAssembly is neither JavaScript nor some strongly-typed dialect. It is a standalone, compiled, portable binary. How you send data into and get data out of that binary involves some subtle nuances about how WebAssembly works.
The case for deadlines by Alkis Evlogimenos
Rust aims to be the foundation of fast and robust software. A thorn in that side is the choice of timeout-centric APIs for I/O and multithreading. I posit this was a bad choice and it needs to be remedied as soon as possible before more APIs proliferate this (possibly accidental) design decision.
Getting Yew to work with Rust on ‘Bash on Ubuntu on Windows’ by Raymond Siu
Yew is a new web framework written in Rust that takes concepts from React JS and Elm. It takes the two web libraries I love and combines them with the new language I love — Rust. I wrote this article because I haven’t found a lot of documentation online on how to get the Yew examples running, and I’m sure there will be people that will run into the same problems I did. I wrote this in hopes that it helps someone out there.
Cloudflare Argo Tunnel with Rust+Raspberry Pi by Steven Pack
Serving content from a Rust web server running on a Raspberry Pi from your home to the world, with a Cloudflare Argo Tunnels.
Welcome to this week in Rust and WebAssembly! by Sendil Kumar N
Hello and welcome to the first issue of This Week in Rust and WebAssembly! Rust is a systems language pursuing the trifecta: safety, concurrency, and speed. WebAssembly is designed as a portable target for compilation of high-level languages like C, C++, and Rust, enabling deployment on the web for client and server applications. This is a weekly summary of its progress and community.
Announcing Tower — A library for writing robust network services with Rust by Carl Lerche
Tower is a library for writing robust network services with Rust. It is being built in service of the Conduit proxy, which is using the Tokio ecosystem to build the world’s smallest, fastest, most secure network proxy. Tower will also provide a batteries included experience for implementing HTTP and gRPC services.
Using Rust Modules in JavaScript/Web Development (Part 3/ 3) [NodeJS] by Atul
Please read the Part 1 of the series here :
Making a 100% Statically-Linked, Single-File Web App with React and Rust by Anders Pitman
This tutorial will cover the basics of creating a minimal React app which can be deployed as a statically-linked Rust binary. What this accomplishes is having all of your code, including HTML, JavaScript, CSS, and Rust, packaged into a single file that will run on pretty much any 64-bit Linux system, regardless of the kernel version or installed libraries.
Using Rust Modules in JavaScript/Web Development (Part 2 / 3) [Webpack] by Atul
Part 1 of the post was primarily concerned with integrating rust modules with JavaScript with the help of wasm. But that involved a lot of manual procedures. Another more streamlined way is using webpack.
Improving GStreamer performance with tokio by Sebastian Dröge
For one of our customers at Centricular we were working on a quite interesting project. Their use-case was basically to receive an as-high-as-possible number of audio RTP streams over UDP, transcode them, and then send them out via UDP again. Due to how GStreamer usually works, they were running into some performance issues.

This blog post will describe the first set of improvements that were implemented for this use-case, together with a minimal benchmark and the results. My colleague Mathieu will follow up with one or two other blog posts with the other improvements and a more full-featured benchmark.

The short version is that CPU usage decreased by about 65-75%, i.e. allowing 3-4x more streams with the same CPU usage. Also parallelization works better and usage of different CPU cores is more controllable, allowing for better scalability. And a fixed, but configurable number of threads is used, which is independent of the number of streams.
HTTP upgrades with hyper by Sean McArthur
The newest release of hyper includes some lower-level connection APIs for both the server and client. Notably, this allows using hyper send and receive HTTP upgrade requests. The most popular of these is Websockets.
Using Rust Modules in JavaScript/Web Development (Part 1 / 3) [Plain JS] by Atul
One of the promising reasons I started learning rust is that it can be used to build modules for web using web-assembly. This blog post will cover how you can build a rust module and use it as regular package in the JavaScript environment. Remember rust is not meant to replace JS. I see it as complementary add-on to the places where JS is comparatively slower (heavy computations).
JavaScript to Rust and Back Again: A wasm-bindgen Tale by Alex Crichton
Recently we’ve seen how WebAssembly is incredibly fast to compile, speeding up JS libraries, and generating even smaller binaries. We’ve even got a high-level plan for better interoperability between the Rust and JavaScript communities, as well as other web programming languages. As alluded to in that previous post, I’d like to dive into more detail about a specific component, wasm-bindgen.
Removing Connection State In mob by Herman J. Radtke III
I started writing mob, an multi-echo server using mio, in 2015. I coded mob into a mostly working state and then left it mostly alone, only updating it to work with the latest stable mio. Recently, I started looking at the code again and had the urge to improve it. In a previous post, I talked about managing the state of connections in mob. In this post, I will walk through what I did to remove the need to track connection state. I wanted to remove the state because the implementation required an O(n) operation every tick of the mio event loop. It also added a fair amount of complexity to the code.
Rust + Node.js are awesome! by Benjamín Calderón
Blazing fast, low requirements, computationally intensive operations on Node.js using Rust
Touring a Fast, Safe, and Complete(ish) Web Service in Rust by Brandur Leach
For years now, I’ve been having a crisis of faith in interpreted languages. They’re fast and fun to work in at small scale, but when you have a project that gets big, their attractive veneer quickly washes away. A big Ruby or JavaScript (just to name a few) program in production is a never ending game of whack-a-mock – you fix one problem only to find a new one somewhere else. No matter how many tests you write, or how well-disciplined your team, any new development is sure to introduce a stream of bugs that will need to be shored up over the course of months or years.

Central to the problem are the edges. People will reliably do a good job of building and testing the happy paths, but as humans we’re terrible at considering the edge conditions, and it’s those edges and corners that cause trouble over the years that a program is in service.
Building a Restful CRUD API with Rust by Sean Wragg
Since my initial Node/Rust REST comparison, I’ve wanted to follow up with a comprehensive guide for getting simple CRUD operations up and running in Rust.
Multicasting in Rust by Benjamin Fry
A brief post to help others multicast in Rust
Building a DNS server in Rust by Emil Hernvall
With the combined goal of gaining a deep understanding of DNS, of doing something interesting with Rust, and of scratching some of my own itches, I originally set out to implement my own DNS server. This document is not a truthful chronicle of that journey, but rather an idealized version of it, without all the detours I ended up taking. We'll gradually implement a full DNS server, starting from first principles.
Parc3l: Combining Three.js, Rust, and WebAssembly! by Andres Cuervo
WebAssembly has been interesting me lately, specifically the prospect of doing arithmetically-intensive operations with it, not unlike the fantastic physics engine Emscripten port Ammo.js. Compiling something like that is out of the scope of this little post (but should be getting easier!), and I’ve left some links at the bottom so you can clear more about WebAssembly if you’re interested.
Making WebAssembly better for Rust & for all languages by Lin Clark
To be a useful as a web language, Rust needs to work well with the JavaScript ecosystem. We have some work to do to get there, and fortunately that work ...
Crashing a Rust Hyper server with a Denial of Service attack by Klaus Purer
I’m writing a reverse proxy in Rust using Hyper and I want to measure performance a bit to know if I’m doing something terribly wrong. By doing that I discovered a Denial of Service vulnerability in Hyper when IO errors are not properly handled. Note that a workaround has been released in the meantime in Hyper 0.11.20, more background info can be found in this Hyper issue.
Writing a Simple IPFS Crawler by Gökberk Yaltıraklı
IPFS is a peer-to-peer protocol that allows you to access and publish content in a decentralized fashion. It uses hashes to refer to files. Short of someone posting hashes on a website, discoverability of content is pretty low. In this article, we’re going to write a very simple crawler for IPFS.
It’s challenging to have a traditional search engine in IPFS because content rarely links to each other. But there is another way than just blindly following links like a traditional crawler.
Writing servers with Tokio by Félix Saparelli
I’ve been writing a small toy project with Tokio in my spare time’s spare time. I’ll write more about it at a later date. What I’ve found writing it, though, is that there is a specific pattern to writing servers, both UDP and TCP (and presumably others) in Tokio, and it’s not super obvious at first glance. So here it is.
Writing a Microservice in Rust by Peter Goldsborough
Let me begin this article on Writing a Microservice in Rust by talking about C++. I’ve been a reasonably active member of the C++ community for quite a while now, attending and contributing talks to conferences, following the development and evangelism of the language’s more modern features and of course writing lots of it. C++ is a language that gives its users very fine-grained control over all aspects of the program they are writing, at the cost of a steep learning curve and a large body of knowledge required to write effective C++. However, C++ is also a very old language, conceived by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985, and thus caries a lot of technical debt even into modern standards.
Speed Without Wizardry by Nick Fitzgerald
Vyacheslav Egorov, who goes by mraleph on the Web, wrote a response to my article “Oxidizing Source Maps with Rust and WebAssembly” titled “Maybe you don’t need Rust and WASM to speed up your JS”.

The “Oxidizing” article recounts my experience integrating Rust (compiled to WebAssembly) into the source-map JavaScript library. Although the JavaScript implementation was originally authored in idiomatic JavaScript style, as we profiled and implemented speed improvements, the code became hard to read and maintain. With Rust and its zero-cost abstractions, we found that there was no trade-off between performance and clean code.
Recently, for a Rusty Web by Sean McArthur
It’s been a few months since I shifted my focus full time to Rust, and in that time, we’ve gotten a lot of work done! I wanted to update you here what all that is, since it’s spread around on multiple repositories.
Porting Rust to WebAssembly by John-John Tedro
I recently spent some effort trying to make reproto run in a browser. Here I want to outline the problems I encountered and how I worked around them. I will also provide a number of suggestions for how things might be improved for future porters.
Fanta: An opinionated framework for web development in rust by Peter Mertz
Fanta is a web framework that aims for developers to be productive and consistent across projects and teams. Its goals are to be: Opinionated, Fast, and Intuitive. Based heavily off of the work here: https://github.com/tokio-rs/tokio-minihttp
Gameland intro, reimplemented in Rust for WebAssembly by Per Lundberg
My nice brother Johannes Ridderstedt sent me some old files a few weeks ago (in late 2017), stuff that he had preserved from an age-old computer of ours. One of these was the file named gameland.zip (not published yet, but I might put it up here some day.) I managed to get this running, and liked what I saw (you'll find the YouTube link to it further down on this page.) Around this time I was reading a bit about WebAssembly which I think will redefine and help reshape the web as we see it today. I was also looking at the Hello, Rust web page, and the "FizzleFade effect using a Feistel network" page in particular.
Event Sourcing with Aggregates in Rust by Kevin Hoffman
Everyone loves event sourcing, right up until the moment they have to implement it. At that moment all the wonderful whiteboard drawings…
Deploying A Rust Server to Google App Engine with Travis CI & Docker by Morgan A. Gallant
I woke up this morning with one goal: to convert my website (morgangallant.com) into a Rust web server. I have been a long time fan of…
A Wee Allocator for WebAssembly by Nick Fitzgerald
Introducing wee_alloc. wee_alloc is a work-in-progress memory allocator designed for WebAssembly. It has a tiny code size footprint, compiling down to only a kilobyte of .wasm code.
I rewrote a Nintendo emulator with Rust / WebAssembly (Japanese) by bokuweb
概要 以前、JSで書いた(ファミコンのエミュレータを書いた - undefined)ファミコンのエミュレータをRustで書き直してみた。 また、技術的な内容はQiitaの方にも書いているので興味のある方は参照してみてください。(まだ Hello, World!までしか書けてませんが。) qiita.com もともとファミコンのエミュレータって新しい言語を習得するのにちょうどいい題材だったりするのでは、って話しからスタートしてて、よくわからないのでJSで書いてみて、ようやくRustで一通りは実装できた感じ。まだバグや未実装(音声周りやマッパー)も多いんですが、ひとまずはお腹いっぱいな感じ。 成果…
DataFusion: Big Data Platform for Rust by Andy Grove
DataFusion is an open-source Big Data platform implemented in the Rust programming language with a similar programming style to Apache Spark.
Rust and WebAssembly with Turtle - /var/blog by Marshall Pierce
In this post, I'll walk through a few of the highlights of getting Turtle, a Rust library for creating animated drawings, to run in the browser with WebAssembly.